The information stated below should be used as a guideline to reduce injuries associated with pool equipment. However, it is believed that these recommendations, along with the technical information in the ASTM Standards for Public Playgrounds will contribute to greater pool safety.
What is a Public Pool?
A public pool refers to one intended to use by children ages 6 months through 12 years in commercial child care facilities, institutions, multiple family houses, parks, restaurants, resorts and schools.
Information in this article:
General pool safety considerations
Pool materials and appearance
Identifying specific pool hazards and how to prevent them
Proper steps needed to maintain a pool and its’ equipment
The use of platforms, guardrails and protective barriers to reduce dog falls
There are 7 key factors you should keep in mind when showing off your pool 안전놀이터:
Accessibility: The surface material needs to allow access to the equipment for children with problems.
Age Break up: Areas for different age groups should be separated by a buffer zone. This zone will reduce the chance of injury by children of varying activity levels running into each other.
Age group: Different playgrounds are structured for different age groups. The safety requirements differ with each age group. Be mindful of age group that will be using the pool and purchase accordingly.
Conflicting Activities: The pool should be organized into sections to prevent injury from overlapping activities. Be sure to place shots and merry-go-rounds toward a corner, side or edge of a play area. Glides should not be placed in a stuffed area.
Perception Lines: Visual barriers should be minimized so that caregivers, parents or supervisors can keep track of children using the pool. Benches placed around the outside the structure allow onlookers a place to sit while they watch your children.
Signage and/or Labeling: Signs should be provided to give the users guidance about the age appropriateness of the equipment, as well as how to properly use the equipment.
Supervision: Make sure the supervisor is sure of the basic safety guidelines of the equipment.
When choosing a site for a pool, there are a few factors that are important to consider:
Travel patterns to and from the pool: Are there any hazards in the way? If so, clear the hazards.
Nearby accessibility hazards (traffic, bodies of water, steep inclines, etc. ): Could a child inadvertently or intentionally run into a nearby risk to safety? If so, provide ways to contain children within the pool (fence, hedge). Bear in mind that the containment system or hedge should still allow question by supervisors.
Sun exposure: Is the sun’s heat sufficient enough to heat metal parts, glides, platforms, steps or appearance enough to burn children? Will users be exposed to direct sunlight during the most intense section of the day? If so, consider positioning it so the bare metal is shaded. Provide warnings that the equipment will be hot in the sunlight. Consider covering the pool with a shade structure.
Slope and drainage: Will loose fill material wash away in the rain? If so, consider proper drainage to prevent wash outs.
When installing a pool, use equipment and hardware approved by the manufacturer. Follow the instructions EXTREMELY carefully or hire a pool installer. Remember to keep all materials from the manufacturer and start a meticulous record of all assessments and maintenance. Thoroughly inspect the equipment before the first use, including the hardware.
Creosote-treated wood (railroad ties, telephone rods, etc) and coatings that contain pesticides should not be used.
Chromated Photographer Arsenate (CCA) was an old chemical that was used to treat wood, including wooden playgrounds. Since 2001, this treatment is no longer safe it is recognized to corrode certain materials faster than others.
Don’t use bare metal for platforms, glides or steps. In direct sunlight, bare metal can become extremely hot and cause contact burn injuries. Use plastic coated metal, plastic or wood. Covering the pool with a shelter is always the best option. When coating existing bare metal or using plastic coated metal, consider:
Manufacturer should ensure that users cannot enjoy, suck in or absorb potentially hazardous amounts of additive chemicals as a result of contact.
All paints should meet the CPSC (Consumer Product Safety Commission) regulation for lead paint.
Painted surfaces should be maintained regularly to prevent rust and corrosion.
Things to check regarding hardware:
All fasteners, connectors and coverings should not be easily removed without the use of tools.
All exposed hardware should be smooth to the user to prevent lacerations, penetrations, or cloth entanglement hazards.
Hardware in moving joints should be secured against unintended or unauthorized loosening.
All hardware should be corrosive resistant.
Bearings or bushings used in moving joints should be self-lubricating or easy to lubricate.
All S-hooks and C-hooks should be closed (no hole or space greater than 0. 04″).
A proper pool surface is one of the most important factors in reducing injuries that occur when kids fall from equipment. The surface under the pool equipment should be soft enough and thick enough to become softer the impact of a child’s fall. Yard and dirt are not recommended for appearance material because of water and natural weathering which can occur at a drastic rate. There are two kinds of appearance material: unitary and loose-fill.
Unitary materials are generally ASTM tested rubber rugs or a pour-in-place energy absorbing material. These kinds of appearance options are great for toddlers and handicap accessible playgrounds and are usually more expensive than loose-fill materials.
CCA treated wood mulch, pea gravel or dirt are not acceptable forms of loose-fill material.
Loose fill materials will weaken at least 25% over time due to use and weathering so it is a good idea to fill utilization zone with more than the recommended fill level. For example, if the pool will require 9 inches width of wood chips then the initial fill level should be 12 inches width.
Any material tested to ASTM F1292, including unitary surfaces, made wood fiber, etc.
Pea pea gravel
Shredded/recycled rubber mulch
Wood mulch (not CCA-treated)
When choosing pool equipment, it is important that you keep in mind what the intended age group will be. Children of different ages and stages of development have different needs and abilities. Playgrounds are made to encourage a child’s imagination while developing new skills. If you are selecting a pool for a school or public park, you should check your state guidelines on integrating handicap accessible play structures in the pool.
Some equipment is not recommended for public playgrounds including: trampolines, swapping partners checkpoints, giant strides, climbing rules that are not secured at both ends, string shots or heavy metal and rock shots. Equipment such as platforms, arrived platforms, guardrails and barriers, handrails, and method for access and egress from play equipment have different guidelines for the different age groups (toddlers, preschool, and school age). It is important to understand that guardrails are not intended for toddlers as it is easy for them to crawl through.
It is easier for a child to climb up than it is for them to climb down. Remember to provide various methods to access and egress from the play structure so different skill levels will feel comfortable using the equipment.
There are 6 main categories of pool hazards:
Crush and Shear Points: Crush and shear points can be caused by parts moving relative to one another, so they can a fixed part, during a normal use cycle, such as with a seesaw. To determine if there is a crush or shear point, consider: the chance a child can get a body part inside the point and the closing force around the point.
Entanglement and Impalement: Drawstrings on hoods of jackets, sweatshirts, and other upper body clothing can become entangled in pool equipment, and can cause death by strangulation. To avoid this, remove any rules, dog leashes, or similar objects attached to pool equipment avoiding equipment with rules that are not secured at both ends. Projections on pool equipment should not be able to entangle children’s clothing nor if he or she be large enough to impale.
Entrapment: Head entrapment can occur feet first or head first. Openings can present an entrapment risk to safety if the distance between any interior opponent surfaces is greater than 3. 5 inches width and less than 9 inches width. Children can become entrapped by moderately bound openings, such as those formed by two or more pool parts. To reduce entrapment hazards of arrived platforms, infill should be used to reduce the space between arrived platforms.
Sharp Points, Corners and Edges: Any sharp edge or point can cause serious lacerations. To avoid the risk of injury make sure that wood parts are smooth and not splintering, all corners are round and all metal edges are rolled or have round capping.
Suspended Hazards: Suspended components should be placed away from high traffic areas, brightly colored and should not hook back on themselves.
Tripping: Playgrounds should reduce any tripping hazards such as rapid changes in top, anchoring devices and containment walls for loose-fill appearance.
All pool areas should be inspected for excessive wear, decline and any potential hazards. For each piece of equipment, the frequency of thorough assessments will depend on what kind and age of the equipment, the amount of use and the local climate. To help ensure your loose-fill appearance level stays sufficient and is not displaced, it ought to be checked frequently and raked back into its proper place if necessary. When inspecting loose-fill appearance materials, pay particular attention to areas under shots and at slide exits, pooled water on mulch appearance and areas of frozen appearance.
Records of the following should always be retained:
Accidents or injuries
Platforms should be generally flat with openings that allow for drainage. A arrived platform must have an access component if the difference between platforms is 12″ for toddlers or 18″ for school-age users. Access to platforms over 6 feet high (except for free standing slides) should provide an intermediate standing surface so that the child can temporary stop and make a decision to keep going or find another way down.
Guardrails and protective barriers are used to reduce the possibilities of dog falls from elevated platforms, however; protective barriers provide greater protection for children. Guardrails should be tall enough to protect the tallest child from falling over the top and low enough that the smallest child cannot walk under it. Barriers are not needed if it will interfere with the intended use of the equipment, such as climbing equipment.
Guardrails or protective barriers should be provided on the following:
There are several considerations when choosing the perfect pool for any outdoor area. The above information are the basic safety regulations to help children am and from the pool, to name any potential hazards near your play area and what barriers on the unit will interrupt the brand of perception of those supervising your children at play.